- ADHD is the most common behavior disorder
- ADHD is a disruptive behavior disorder which is characterized by levels of inattention
- Three types of ADHD have been established according to which symptoms are strongest in the individual:
  1. Predominantly Inattentive Type: It is hard for the individual to organize or finish a task, to pay attention to details, or to follow instructions or conversations. The person is easily distracted or forgets details of daily routines.
  2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: The person fidgets and talks a lot. It is hard to sit still for long (e.g., for a meal or while doing homework). Smaller children may run, jump or climb constantly. The individual feels restless and has trouble with impulsivity. Someone who is impulsive may interrupt others a lot, grab things from people, or speak at inappropriate times. It is hard for the person to wait their turn or listen to directions. A person with impulsiveness may have more accidents and injuries than others.
  3. Combined Type: Symptoms of the above two types are equally predominant in the person.

- to be diagnosed with AD/HD behaviors must be excessive, long-term and pervasive

- behaviors must appear before the age of 7
- must continue for at least 6 months, consistently

- AD/HD is NOT caused by:
- poor parenting
- too much tv
- excessive sugar
- allergies, etc.

- likely caused by biological factors which influence neurotransmitter in certain parts of the brain
- likely to have a strong genetic basis
- if one person in the family is diagnosed with Ad/HD, there is a 25%-35% probability that another family member will also be diagnosed

- ADHD is highly correlated with Tourettes

Connection to Classroom Management:
“How does ADHD effect the way you will manage your classroom?”
- because it is a disruptive behavior, ADHD interrupts not only the learning of that child, but also the learning of other children in the class
- Teacher must KNOW about the disorder in order to create effective ways to manage it
- teachers need to be well-informed as well as be an advocate for that students so he or she gets the appropriate services/accommodations in order to cope with the disorder
- structure is vital for ADHD students
- they need stable, daily routines in school
- clear organization: specified places to store materials, books, etc.
- this will save the child much frustration and feeling overwhelmed and anxious

- expectations have to be clear, because ADHD students have trouble reading body language
- social cues need to be simply stated in a verbal or written form

Instructional Strategies:
eliminate irrelevant cues and highlight relevant ones
encourage group work
provide model for organization (teacher or peer model)
emphasize relationship between ideas
use visual AND verbal methods of intruction (for classwork and assignments)

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